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Monuments of Khammam

S.No Name of the Monument Village Mandal Period
1 Buddhist Rock Cut Caves Ramavaram - Karukondagutta Kothagudem 1st —3rd C.A.D

Buddhist Rock Cut Caves

There are two Buddhist monuments on Karukonda hillock. One is a big boulder with Buddha sculptures in niches on the four sides. On each cardinal side, there is a niche in which a figure of Buddha is carved (relief), seated in padmasana (lotus throne) in a meditative mood.

The second one is, two cells cut in a single piece of rock and the walls are sculpted with the figures of Buddha, a chauri bearer on each side and dwarapalakas.

Despite not having a large number of sculptures, the art showcased at Karukonda is extremely developed. The Buddha figures and the chauri bearers in the rock cut caves are typical examples of conventional and graceful curves of the body, an example of refined Mahayana art. For the above reasons, it indicates that these pieces of art might have been executed at a time when Mahayana art had fully developed during 2nd - 3rd Century CE.

2 Khammam Fort Khammam Khammam 16th - 19 th CE

Khammam Fort

Khammam fort is a hill fortification occupying an area of 4 sqkm. The inner fortification features cyclopean walls at two levels with bastions. It is believed to have been built during Kakatiya period. Sitab Khan (Sitapati) made Khammam as his second capital. In 1516 CE Qutb Shahis captured Khammam fort by defeating Sitab Khan. Zafaruddaulah (1716-1803 CE ) then became the taluqdar of Khammam and built a Mahal on the fort. This fort was repaired and renovated during the period of Asaf Jahis with the help of French Engineers. There is an undated inscription in Telugu prose, carved on the stonewall to the right side of the main entrance to this fort.

Construction of the Khammam Fort was initiated around 950 CE when the Telugu area was ruled by the Kakatiya dynasty (10th -13th Century CE). Later, Musunuri Nayaks and Velama kings were involved in the construction of the fort situated on the hill. Khammam Fort represents both Hindu and Muslim architectural influences. The fort has celebrated 1000 years of existence and is set to become a major tourist spot n southern India.

3 Megalithic Burials Khammam Khammam 10th C.B.C
4 Megalithic Burials Gollapahad Khammam 10thth C.B.C
5 Megalithic Burials Pillaguda Khammam 10thth C.B.C
6 Cairns & Menhirs Nelakondapalli Nelakondapalli 10th C.B.C
7 Megalithic Burials Waira Waira 10th C.B.C
8 Flakes Cores & Stone Implements Madhira Madhira 10th-9th C.B.C
9 Stone Circle Garia Garia 10th C.B.C.
10 Megalithic Burials Mallaram Manuguru 10thBCE

Megalithic Burials

This archeological site is a vast megalithic settlement consisting of huge circles bearing lengthy arthostats. People of the megalithic period developed a novel method in cutting slabs for cist burials. Huge blocks of stone slabs measuring 1 to 2 feet in thickness were used as capstones. The sides were cut accurately with great precision and this marks the technological development achieved by the people of that era in course of their drift from upper Godavari to lower Godavari.

The arrangement of the burials and the capacity to tackle huge flat slabs of more than 2 tons in weight points out their construction capacity and skill. The planned arrangements of the burials in proper rows suggest that the megalithic builders must have changed their traditional methods of tackling granite and the execution shows that they adopted new techniques by transplantation.

11 Mukkanteswaralayam Kusumanchi Kusumanchi 13th CE

Mukkanteswaralayam

In plan the Mukkanteswaralayam is a triple shrine, the shrines located juxtaposed leaving some space in between them. Each shrine is having garbhagruha and antarala with common 16-pillared mandapa infront. Each temple is also having a small portico. These temples are facing north.

Of the 16 pillars of the common Rangamandapa, infront of the three shrines, the central 4 pillars in front of central shrine are highly polished and depicts sculptural motifs of swans in opposite direction. On stylistic grounds this temple can be datable to 13th - 14th Century CE.

12 Menhirs and Alignments (Vertical Stone) Kusumanchi Kusumanchi 6th BCE

Menhirs and Alignments (Vertical Stone)

Megaliths are special class of Monuments in Deccan particularly in Telangana State. Almost all types of megalithic monuments like menhirs, stone circles, dolmens and dolmonoid cists are reported all over Telangana Districts. They help to understand the culture and traditions of the Megalithic communities of a particular region.

Menhirs are single upright slabs over or near a megalithic burial complex. One such menhir (vertical stone) is located near Ganapeswara temple on the outskirts of Kusumanchi. A menhir, standing stone, orthostat, or lith is a large upright standing stone. Menhirs may be found singly as monoliths, or as part of a group involving similar stones. Their size varies considerably, but their shape is usually uneven and squared, which is again tapering towards the top often.

13 Sivalayam (Trikuta Temple) Pulluru Garla 13th Century CE

Trikuta Temple

The Trikuta Temple facing east with three shrines on southern, western and northern sides with a common ranga mandapa within a rectangular prakara is located in the outskirts of the Pulluru village. There is one highly polished Shivalingam which is now kept in the mandapa and worshipped by the villagers during Sivaratri and other festive occasions. A rectangular pedestal carved with four lions is located in front of the antarala towards the northern end.

14 Buddhist Monastic Complex Nelakondapalli Nelakondapalli 2nd - 4 th CE

Buddhist Monastic complex

Buddhist Stupa locally termed as Viratrajgadde or Erradibba is located in between Nelakondapalli and Mujjigudem villages. Excavations brought to light a Mahastupa, Monastic complex and other objects such as miniature Votive Stupa, a Bronze icon of Avalokitesvara, Idols of Buddha besides Pottery, Beads and Bangles and Coins of Ikshvaku and Vishnukundini periods dating back to 3rd - 4th Century CE.

The plan of the Stupa consists of a series of concentric circular walls of brick, cut across by radiating spokes starting from the massive central hub of 36 ft in diameter. The main components are lower pradakshinapatha, circular drum (vedica) with ayaka platforms and a dome. The total diameter of the Stupa is 170 ft. and its present height is 46 ft while the conjectural total height is around 54 ft. The dimensions of the bricks used for the Stupa is 50 x 25 x 7.5 cms.

The excavations also unearthed a Vihara complex which is located nearby to the Mahastupa. This is a Chatusshala type of Vihara complex which has hundred cells and a spacious cultural courtyard, while the foundations of the Vihara has an entrance on the eastern side.

15 Dolmens - Dongatogu Potlapalli Potlapalli 10 th BCE

Dolmens - Dongatogu

Roughly, one thousand dolmen type megalithic burials are located on a hillock locally known as Dongatogu. Dongatogu situated at a distance about 10 km west of Janampet, a village on Mangur-Warangal road via Eturunagaram and Mangapet. Since this area is covered with thick forest, it is not easily accessible.

The architecture of these graves is plain and simple. They consist of a small chamber, observed in the form of a table raised above the ground. The top portion is invariably a monolithic slab of varying dimensions, the length, width and thickness of the slab being 12 feet, 8 feet and 3 feet respectively. The slab is supported and held above the ground by smaller slabs (which generally vary in number, the maximum being twelve and minimum being four). Wood fossils have been collected from the surface of the burial ground in this site. Excavations were conducted here during the H.E.H Nizams Period, during 1940 - 1941.

16 Ganapeshwara Swamy Temple Kusumanchi Kusumanchi 13 th CE

Ganapeshwara Swamy Temple

The Ganapeswarayalayam is located on the north-west side of the village in sy.no. 636, about two kilometers from road point in Kusumanchi Village and Mandal The temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva. Here Lord Shiva is worshipped in the form of Linga. This Shiva Linga is very big, intact and beautifully polished and carved with Brahmasutras, and attract the attention of pilgrims/visitors.

The temple was constructed on a high adhistana. In plan, it is a single shrine facing east with an antarala and pillared rangamandapa in front of it, with entrances on north, south and east. The platform of this temple is like that of Ramappa and Thousand pillared temples. Based on the stylistic grounds and taking into consideration the inscriptional evidence, this temple can be datable to late 13th Century CE.